There are currently 402 studies in the GENERA database.

Advanced Search

General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • maize
GE trait
  • insect resistance
  • herbicide tolerance
  • France


Safety for consumption
  • negative effect

A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health Open Access

de Vendômois, JS; Roullier, F; Cellier, D; Séralini, GE
International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009 December. 5(7):706-726

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

PMID: 20011136 DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.5.706


We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world. NK 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide Roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. MON 810 and MON 863 are engineered to synthesize two different Bt toxins used as insecticides. Approximately 60 different biochemical parameters were classified per organ and measured in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. GM maize-fed rats were compared first to their respective isogenic or parental non-GM equivalent control groups. This was followed by comparison to six reference groups, which had consumed various other non-GM maize varieties. We applied nonparametric methods, including multiple pairwise comparisons with a False Discovery Rate approach. Principal Component Analysis allowed the investigation of scattering of different factors (sex, weeks of feeding, diet, dose and group). Our analysis clearly reveals for the 3 GMOs new side effects linked with GM maize consumption, which were sex- and often dose-dependent. Effects were mostly associated with the kidney and liver, the dietary detoxifying organs, although different between the 3 GMOs. Other effects were also noticed in the heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system. We conclude that these data highlight signs of hepatorenal toxicity, possibly due to the new pesticides specific to each GM corn. In addition, unintended direct or indirect metabolic consequences of the genetic modification cannot be excluded.


GMO; toxicity; GM corn; rat; NK 603; MON 810; MON 863


Funding source
  • French Ministry of Research
  • Greenpeace
Funding country
  • France
  • Netherlands
Funding type
  • government
  • NGO: competing industry aligned

Links to outside analysis of this resource

Please contact us if you know of an independent summary or analysis of this resource.

Cite this study


de Vendômois, JS, F Roullier, D Cellier, GE Séralini. "A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health." International Journal of Biological Sciences 5.7 (2009): 706-726. Web. 5 Dec. 2023.


de Vendômois, JS., Roullier, F., Cellier, D., Séralini, GE. (2009). A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(7), 706-726. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5.706

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.