There are currently 402 studies in the GENERA database.

Advanced Search

General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • rice
GE trait
  • quality
  • Germany
  • India


  • positive effect
Safety for consumption
  • positive effect

Genetic Engineering for the Poor: Golden Rice and Public Health in India

Stein AJ, Sachdev HP, Qaim M
World Development. 2008 January. 36(1):144–158

Link to full text (journal may charge for access)

DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.02.013


Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects millions of people, causing serious health problems. Golden Rice (GR), which has been genetically engineered to produce β-carotene, is being proposed as a remedy. While this new technology has aroused controversial debates, its actual impact remains unclear. We develop a methodology for ex ante evaluation, taking into account health and nutrition details, as well as socioeconomic and policy factors. The framework is used for empirical analyses in India. Given broad public support, GR could more than halve the disease burden of VAD. Juxtaposing health benefits and overall costs suggests that GR could be very cost-effective.


vitamin A deficiency; biofortification; Golden Rice; disability-adjusted life years; cost-effectiveness; India


Funding source
  • German Research Foundation
  • Golden Rice Humanitarian Board
Funding country
  • Germany
Funding type
  • government
  • NGO: same industry aligned

Links to outside analysis of this resource

Please contact us if you know of an independent summary or analysis of this resource.

Cite this study


Stein AJ, Sachdev HP, Qaim M. "Genetic Engineering for the Poor: Golden Rice and Public Health in India." World Development 36.1 (2008): 144–158. Web. 22 Jun. 2024.


Stein AJ, Sachdev HP, Qaim M. (2008). Genetic Engineering for the Poor: Golden Rice and Public Health in India. World Development, 36(1), 144–158. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.02.013

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.