There are currently 402 studies in the GENERA database.

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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • maize
GE trait
  • insect resistance
  • USA


Safety for environment
  • negative effect

Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems

Rosi-Marshall, EJ; Tank, JL; Royer, TV; Whiles, MR; Evans-White, M; Chambers, C; Griffiths, NA; Pokelsek, J; Stephen, ML
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 October. 104(41):16204-16208

Link to full text (journal may charge for access)

PMID: 17923672 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707177104 ISSN: 1091-6490


Corn (Zea mays L.) that has been genetically engineered to produce the Cry1Ab protein (Bt corn) is resistant to lepidopteran pests. Bt corn is widely planted in the midwestern United States, often adjacent to headwater streams. We show that corn byproducts, such as pollen and detritus, enter headwater streams and are subject to storage, consumption, and transport to downstream water bodies. Laboratory feeding trials showed that consumption of Bt corn byproducts reduced growth and increased mortality of nontarget stream insects. Stream insects are important prey for aquatic and riparian predators, and widespread planting of Bt crops has unexpected ecosystem-scale consequences.


caddisflies, genetically modified crops


Funding source
  • National Science Foundation
Funding country
  • United States
Funding type
  • government

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Cite this study


Rosi-Marshall, EJ, JL Tank, TV Royer, MR Whiles, M Evans-White, C Chambers, NA Griffiths, J Pokelsek, ML Stephen. "Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104.41 (2007): 16204-16208. Web. 11 Dec. 2023.


Rosi-Marshall, EJ., Tank, JL., Royer, TV., Whiles, MR., Evans-White, M., Chambers, C., Griffiths, NA., Pokelsek, J., & Stephen, ML. (2007). Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104(41), 16204-16208. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707177104

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