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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • rice
GE trait
  • quality
  • UK, USA


  • positive effect

Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content

Paine, JA; Shipton, CA; Chaggar, S; Howells, RM; Kennedy, MJ; Vernon, G; Wright, SY; Hinchliffe, E; Adams, JL; Silverstone, AL; Drake, R
Nature Biotechnology. 2005 March. 23(4):482-487

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PMID: 15793573 DOI: 10.1038/nbt1082 ISSN: 1087-0156


Golden Rice is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene.


Golden rice, beta carotene, vitamin A


Funding source
  • Syngenta
Funding country
  • Switzerland
Funding type
  • industry: same

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Cite this study


Paine, JA, CA Shipton, S Chaggar, RM Howells, MJ Kennedy, G Vernon, SY Wright, E Hinchliffe, JL Adams, AL Silverstone, R Drake. "Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content." Nature Biotechnology 23.4 (2005): 482-487. Web. 28 May. 2024.


Paine, JA., Shipton, CA., Chaggar, S., Howells, RM., Kennedy, MJ., Vernon, G., Wright, SY., Hinchliffe, E., Adams, JL., Silverstone, AL., & Drake, R. (2005). Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology, 23(4), 482-487. doi:10.1038/nbt1082

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