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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • barley
GE trait
  • quality
  • USA, Austria


  • positive effect

The production of recombinant proteins in transgenic barley grains Open Access

Horvath, H; Huang, J; Wong, O; Kohl, E; Okita, T; Kannangara, CG; von Wettstein, D
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 February. 97(4):1914-1919

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

PMID: 10677555 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.030527497 ISSN: 1091-6490


The grain of the self-pollinating diploid barley species offers two modes of producing recombinant enzymes or other proteins. One uses the promoters of genes with aleurone-specific expression during germination and the signal peptide code for export of the protein into the endosperm. The other uses promoters of the structural genes for storage proteins deposited in the developing endosperm. Production of a protein-engineered thermotolerant (1, 3-1, 4)-beta-glucanase with the D hordein gene (Hor3-1) promoter during endosperm development was analyzed in transgenic plants with four different constructs. High expression of the enzyme and its activity in the endosperm of the mature grain required codon optimization to a C+G content of 63% and synthesis as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting into the storage vacuoles. Synthesis of the recombinant enzyme in the aleurone of germinating transgenic grain with an alpha-amylase promoter and the code for the export signal peptide yielded approximately 1 microgram small middle dotmg(-1) soluble protein, whereas 54 microgram small middle dotmg(-1) soluble protein was produced on average in the maturing grain of 10 transgenic lines with the vector containing the gene for the (1, 3-1, 4)-beta-glucanase under the control of the Hor3-1 promoter.


barley, recombinant protein, promoter


Funding source
  • Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service
  • Applied Phytologics
  • Washington Technology Center
Funding country
  • United Stated
Funding type
  • government
  • industry: same

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Cite this study


Horvath, H, J Huang, O Wong, E Kohl, T Okita, CG Kannangara, D von Wettstein. "The production of recombinant proteins in transgenic barley grains." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97.4 (2000): 1914-1919. Web. 7 Dec. 2023.


Horvath, H., Huang, J., Wong, O., Kohl, E., Okita, T., Kannangara, CG., von Wettstein, D. (2000). The production of recombinant proteins in transgenic barley grains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(4), 1914-1919. doi:10.1073/pnas.030527497

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