There are currently 402 studies in the GENERA database.

Advanced Search

General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
Study Type
  • field trial
  • composition
GE organism
  • maize
GE trait
  • insect resistance
  • USA


  • positive effect
Safety for consumption
  • positive effect

Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt corn grown in the United States in 2000−2002

Hammond, Bruce G; Campbell, Keith W; Pilcher, Clinton D; Degooyer, Todd A; Robinson, Aaron E; McMillen, Brian L; Spangler, Stephen M; Riordan, Susan G; Rice, Larry G; Richard, John L
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004 February. 52(5):1390-1397

Link to full text (journal may charge for access)

PMID: 14995151 DOI: 10.1021/jf030441c


Fumonisins were monitored in corn grain collected from Bt hybrids grown in 107 locations across the United States in 2000-2002. Bt corn hybrids contain the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that controls European corn borers and other stalk-boring pests. Fumonisin levels were frequently lower in grain from Bt hybrids grown in field trials under conditions of natural (FACT trials) or manual insect infestation (university trials). Over three years of FACT trials, there were 126/210 comparisons when fumonisin levels in grain from control hybrids were >2 ppm, exceeding U.S. FDA guidance levels of 2 ppm for human food. Grain from Bt hybrids was at or below 2 ppm of fumonisins for 58 of the 126 comparisons. The use of Bt hybrids can increase the percentage of corn grain that would be suitable for use in food and feed.


Corn (Zea mays); fumonisins; mycotoxins; Cry1Ab protein; Bt corn; biotechnology


Funding source
  • Monsanto
Funding country
  • United States
Funding type
  • industry: same

Links to outside analysis of this resource

Please contact us if you know of an independent summary or analysis of this resource.

Cite this study


Hammond, Bruce G, Keith W Campbell, Clinton D Pilcher, Todd A Degooyer, Aaron E Robinson, Brian L McMillen, Stephen M Spangler, Susan G Riordan, Larry G Rice, John L Richard. "Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt corn grown in the United States in 2000−2002." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52.5 (2004): 1390-1397. Web. 22 Jun. 2024.


Hammond, Bruce G., Campbell, Keith W., Pilcher, Clinton D., Degooyer, Todd A., Robinson, Aaron E., McMillen, Brian L., Spangler, Stephen M., Riordan, Susan G., Rice, Larry G., Richard, John L. (2004). Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt corn grown in the United States in 2000−2002. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(5), 1390-1397. doi:10.1021/jf030441c

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.