There are currently 402 studies in the GENERA database.

Advanced Search

General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
Study Type
  • non-target
GE organism
  • maize
GE trait
  • insect resistance
  • Switzerland


Safety for environment
  • no effect

Uptake of Bt-toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea Open Access

Dutton, A; Klein, H; Romeis, J; Bigler, F
Ecological Entomology. 2002 August. 27(4):441–447

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2311.2002.00436.x


1. Chrysoperla carnea is an important predatory insect in maize. To assess the ecological effects of Bt-maize, expressing the Cry1Ab protein, on larvae of this predator, the following factors were examined: (1) the performance of three prey herbivores (Rhopalosiphum padi, Tetranychus urticae, and Spodoptera littoralis) on transgenic Bt and non-transgenic maize plants; (2) the intake of the Cry1Ab toxin by the three herbivores; and (3) the effects on C. carnea when fed each of the prey species. 2. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was used as a measure of performance for R. padi and T. urticae. No difference in this parameter was observed between herbivores reared on Bt or non-transgenic plants. In contrast, a higher mortality rate and a delay in development were observed in S. littoralis larvae when fed Bt-maize compared with those fed the control maize plants. 3. The ingestion of Cry1Ab toxin by the different herbivores was measured using an immunological assay (ELISA). Highest amounts of Cry1Ab toxin were detected in T. urticae, followed by S. littoralis, and only trace amounts detected in R. padi. 4. Feeding C. carnea with T. urticae, which were shown to contain the Cry1Ab toxin, or with R. padi, which do not ingest the toxin, did not affect survival, development, or weight of C. carnea. In contrast, a significant increase in mortality and a delay in development were observed when predators were fed S. littoralis larvae reared on Bt-maize. 5. A combined interaction of poor prey quality and Cry1Ab toxin may account for the negative effects observed on C. carnea when fed S. littoralis. The relevance of these findings to the ecological risks of Bt-maize on C. carnea is discussed.


Bacillus thuringiensis; biosafety; Chrysoperla carnea; predator; Rhopalosiphum padi; risk assessment; Spodoptera littoralis; Tetranychus urticae; transgenic maize


Funding source
  • Swiss National Science Foundation
Funding country
  • Switzerland
Funding type
  • government

Links to outside analysis of this resource

Please contact us if you know of an independent summary or analysis of this resource.

Cite this study


Dutton, A, H Klein, J Romeis, F Bigler. "Uptake of Bt-toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea." Ecological Entomology 27.4 (2002): 441–447. Web. 22 Jun. 2024.


Dutton, A., Klein, H., Romeis, J., & Bigler, F. (2002). Uptake of Bt-toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Ecological Entomology, 27(4), 441–447. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.2002.00436.x

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.