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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • rice
GE trait
  • quality
  • Philippines, USA


  • mixed
Safety for consumption
  • positive effect

Golden rice: what role could it play in alleviation of vitamin A deficiency?

Dawe, D; Robertson, R; Unnevehr, L
Food Policy. 2002 October–December. 27(6-May):541–560

Link to full text (journal may charge for access)

DOI: 10.1016/S0306-9192(02)00065-9


Golden rice (GR) is a new rice variety that has been genetically modified to contain beta-carotene, a source of vA. This modification was undertaken as a strategy to address VAD, which is widespread in less developed countries of Asia. Children’s food intake data from a poor rural region of the Philippines are used to simulate the potential impact of GR on vA intake. The potential impact, coverage of deficient subpopulations, and costs of GR are compared to two other interventions, food fortification and supplementation. While investments in future development of GR compare favorably with other interventions in terms of costs and coverage, GR would deliver amounts of vA that are modest, and unlikely to fulfill requirements. Thus, it should be viewed as a complement to existing interventions. To have greatest impact at a cost comparable with wheat fortification, GR varieties should be suited for widespread adoption in Asia and should deliver as much beta-carotene as possible.


Rice; Nutrition; Vitamin A deficiency; Household consumption


Funding source
  • International Rice Research Institute
  • Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station
Funding country
  • Philippines
  • United States
Funding type
  • NGO: independent
  • government

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Cite this study


Dawe, D, R Robertson, L Unnevehr. "Golden rice: what role could it play in alleviation of vitamin A deficiency?." Food Policy 27.6-May (2002): 541–560. Web. 22 Jun. 2024.


Dawe, D., Robertson, R., & Unnevehr, L. (2002). Golden rice: what role could it play in alleviation of vitamin A deficiency?. Food Policy, 27(6-May), 541–560. doi:10.1016/S0306-9192(02)00065-9

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.