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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • soybean, maize
GE trait
  • herbicide tolerance
  • insect resistance
  • Australia, USA


  • no effect
Safety for consumption
  • negative effect

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet Open Access

Carman, JA; Vlieger, HR; Ver Steeg, LJ; Sneller, VE; Robinson, GW; Clinch-Jones, CA; Haynes, JI; Edwards, JW
Journal of Organic Systems. 2013 8(1):17-Jan

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

ISSN: 1177-4258


A significant number of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, including crops containing several GM genes 'stacked' into the one plant. We randomised and fed isowean pigs (N=168) either a mixed GM soy and GM corn (maize) diet (N=84) or an equivalent non-GM diet (N=84) in a longterm toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from weaning to slaughter). Equal numbers of male and female pigs were present in each group. The GM corn contained double and triple-stacked varieties. Feed intake, weight gain, mortality and blood biochemistry were measured. Organ weights and pathology were determined post-mortem. There were no differences between pigs fed the GM and non-GM diets for feed intake, weight gain, mortality, and routine blood biochemistry measurements. The GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs. GM-fed pigs had uteri that were 25% heavier than non-GM fed pigs (p=0.025). GM-fed pigs had a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation with a rate of 32% of GM-fed pigs compared to 12% of non-GM-fed pigs (p=0.004). The severe stomach inflammation was worse in GM-fed males compared to non-GM fed males by a factor of 4.0 (p=0.041), and GM-fed females compared to non-GM fed females by a factor of 2.2 (p=0.034).


GMO, GM corn, GM animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation; uterus weight


Funding source
  • Institute of Health and Environmental Research (IHER)
  • Verity Farms
  • Government of Western Australia
  • George Kailis
Funding country
  • Australia
  • United States
Funding type
  • government
  • industry: competing
  • individual

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Cite this study


Carman, JA, HR Vlieger, LJ Ver Steeg, VE Sneller, GW Robinson, CA Clinch-Jones, JI Haynes, JW Edwards. "A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet." Journal of Organic Systems 8.1 (2013): 17-Jan. Web. 28 May. 2024.


Carman, JA., Vlieger, HR., Ver Steeg, LJ., Sneller, VE., Robinson, GW., Clinch-Jones, CA., Haynes, JI., & Edwards, JW. (2013). A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet. Journal of Organic Systems, 8(1), 17-Jan.

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.