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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • soybean
  • maize
  • cotton
  • canola
  • sugar beet
GE trait
  • insect resistance
  • herbicide tolerance
  • UK


Safety for environment
  • positive effect

Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2011 Open Access

Brookes, G; Barfoot, P
GM Crops & food. 2013 April. 4(2):109-19

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

PMID: 23635915 DOI: 10.4161/gmcr.24459 ISSN: 2164-5701


Given the increasing awareness and appreciation of issues such as global warming and the impact of mankind's activities such as agriculture on the global environment, this paper updates previous assessments of the environmental impact of an important and relatively new technology, crop biotechnology has had on global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops. The adoption of the technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 474 million kg (-8.9%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops [as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)] by 18.1%. The technology has also facilitated a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area, which, in 2011, was equivalent to removing 10.22 million cars from the roads.


GMO; biotechnology; carbon sequestration; no tillage; pesticide; environmental impact quotient; EIQ


Funding source
  • Monsanto
Funding country
  • United States
Funding type
  • industry: same

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Cite this study


Brookes, G, P Barfoot. "Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2011." GM Crops & food 4.2 (2013): 109-19. Web. 20 Apr. 2024.


Brookes, G., & Barfoot, P. (2013). Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2011. GM Crops & food, 4(2), 109-19. doi:10.4161/gmcr.24459

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.