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General Information

Document type
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
GE organism
  • maize
  • soybean
  • cotton
GE trait
  • herbicide tolerance
  • insect resistance
  • USA


Safety for environment
  • negative effect

Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years Open Access

Benbrook, CM
Environmental Sciences Europe. 2012 September. 24(24):13-Jan

Link to full text (open access, freely available)

DOI: 10.1186/2190-4715-24-24 ISSN: 2190-4715


Background: Genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops have been remarkable commercial successes in the United States. Few independent studies have calculated their impacts on pesticide use per hectare or overall pesticide use, or taken into account the impact of rapidly spreading glyphosate-resistant weeds. A model was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996–2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting the European corn borer; Bt corn for corn rootworms; and Bt cotton for Lepidopteron insects. Results: Herbicide-resistant crop technology has led to a 239 million kilogram (527 million pound) increase in herbicide use in the United States between 1996 and 2011, while Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 56 million kilograms (123 million pounds). Overall, pesticide use increased by an estimated 183 million kgs (404 million pounds), or about 7%. Conclusions: Contrary to often-repeated claims that today’s genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. If new genetically engineered forms of corn and soybeans tolerant of 2,4-D are approved, the volume of 2,4-D sprayed could drive herbicide usage upward by another approximate 50%. The magnitude of increases in herbicide use on herbicide-resistant hectares has dwarfed the reduction in insecticide use on Bt crops over the past 16 years, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.


Herbicide-resistant crops; Herbicide-tolerant soybeans; Glyphosate; 2,4-D; Bt crops; Genetically engineered corn; Roundup Ready crops; Biotechnology and pesticide use; Glyphosate resistant weeds


Funding source
  • Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
  • Consumers Union
  • Union of Concerned Scientists
  • The Organic Center
Funding country
  • United States
Funding type
  • NGO: independent
  • NGO: competing industry aligned

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Cite this study


Benbrook, CM. "Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years." Environmental Sciences Europe 24.24 (2012): 13-Jan. Web. 5 Dec. 2023.


Benbrook, CM. (2012). Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years. Environmental Sciences Europe, 24(24), 13-Jan. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24

Please verify citations before use, citations are automatically generated based on information stored within the GENERA database and therefore may or may not be correct.